Stephen Decatur, Jr. (January 5, 1779 - March 22, 1820) was an American naval officer notable for his heroism in actions at Tripoli, Libya and in the War of 1812.
He was born in Sinepuxent, Maryland, and was appointed midshipman in the Navy on April 30, 1798, serving in United States. His father, Stephen Decatur, Sr., was also a Naval officer, having commanded several ships.
He was active during the undeclared war with France over the next two years. He was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in 1799. Given command of the brig Argus in 1803, he took to the Mediterranean for war service against Tripoli. Once in the combat zone, Lieutenant Decatur commanded the schooner Enterprise and, on 23 December 1803, captured the enemy ketch Mastico. That vessel, taken into the U.S. Navy under the name Intrepid, was used by Decatur on 16 February 1804 to execute a night raid into Tripoli harbor to destroy the former U.S. frigate Philadelphia, which had been captured after running aground at the end of October 1803.
This daring and extremely successful operation made Lieutenant Decatur an immediate national hero, a status that was enhanced by his courageous conduct during the 3 August 1804 bombardment of Tripoli. In that action, he led his men in hand-to-hand fighting while boarding and capturing an enemy gunboat. Decatur was subsequently promoted to the rank of Captain, and over the next eight years had command of several frigates.
On October 25, 1812, now commanding United States, he captured HMS Macedonian. In 1814 he flew a pennant as Commodore commanding USS President and three smaller vessels in the West Indies. Unfortunately he fell in with the British West Indies Squadron January 15, 1815, and had to surrender President after a fierce fight.
In May 1815, Commodore Decatur sailed his squadron to the Mediterranean Sea to conduct the Second Barbary War, which put an end to the American practice of paying tribute to pirate states.
Between 1816 and 1820, Decatur was a Navy Commissioner.
In 1820, Commodore James Barron challenged Decatur to a duel. They fought in Bladensburg, Maryland, on 22 March 1820. Decatur was mortally wounded and died shortly afterwards.
Decatur is famed for his toast "Our country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right; but our country, right or wrong."
Five U.S. Navy ships have been named in his honor, along with numerous locations.
This article includes information collected from the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.