Cambyses I the Elder (c. 600 - 559 BC) was King of Anshan from c. 580 BC to 559 BC.
He was an early member of the Achaemenid dynasty. He was apparently a great-grandson of its founder Achaemenes of Anshan, grandson of Teispes of Anshan and son of Cyrus I of Anshan. His paternal uncle reigned as Ariaramnes of Persia and his first cousin as Arsames of Persia.
According to Herodotus, Cambyses was "a man of good family and quiet habits". He reigned under the overlordship of Astyages, King of Media. He was reportedly married to Princess Mandane of Media, a daughter to Astyages and Princess Aryenis of Lydia. His wife was reportedly a granddaughter to both Cyaxares of Media and Alyattes II of Lydia. The result of their marriage was the birth of his successor Cyrus II the Great.
According to Herodotus, Cyaxares chose Cambyses as a son-in-law because he considered him to pose no threat to the Medean throne. This was not the case with Cyrus II who would grow to depose his grandfather.