
Joseph Louis Francois Bertrand Biography 
Joseph Louis Francois Bertrand (March 11, 1822  April 5, 1900) was a French mathematician who worked in the fields of number theory, differential geometry, probability theory, and thermodynamics.
Bertrand was a professor at the École Polytechnique and the Collège de France. He was a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences and was its permanent secretary for twentysix years.
He conjectured, in 1845, that there is at least one prime between n and 2n2 for every n > 3. Chebyshev proved this conjecture in 1850.
Bertrand translated into French Carl Friedrich Gauss's work on the theory of errors and the method of least squares. 

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