Adelard of Bath was a 12th century English scholar who traveled widely, especially to Islamic lands. He studied at Tours and taught at Laon. In addition to original work (some of which he attributed to Islamic scholars), he translated Islamic works of astrology, astronomy and mathematics. His works were written in Latin.
He wrote a short treatise on the abacus (Regulae abaci, but his best known works are Questiones naturalis (Natural Questions), a work in the form of a Platonic dialogue and De eodem et diverso a work which contrasts the virtues of the seven liberal arts with worldly interests.
His translations include the works of Euclid and al-Khwarizmi.
In Natural Questions he displays some original thought of a scientific bent, raising the question of the shape of the Earth (he believed it round) and the question of how it remains stationary in space, and also the interesting question of how far a rock would fall if a hole were drilled through the earth and a rock dropped in it, see center of gravity. Also the interesting question of why water experiences difficulty flowing out of a container that has been turned upside down, see atmospheric pressure and vacuum. Many of the other questions addressed reflect the popular culture of the times.
Adelard of Bath: The First English Scientist, Louise Cochrane, 1995, paperback, ISBN 071411748X
Adelard of Bath, Conversations with His Nephew: "on the Same and the Different". "Questions on Natural Science" and "on Birds", Adelard, Adelard of Bath, Italo Ronca, Baudouin Van den Abeele and Charles Burnett, Cambridge University Press, 1999, hardcover, 342 pages, ISBN 0521394716
Adelard of Bath: an English scientist and Arabist of the early twelfth century, Charles Burnett, Warburg Institute, University of London, 1987
pp. 19-49 A History of Magic and Experimental Science: During the First Thirteen Centuries of Our Era, Volume II, Lynn Thorndike, Columbia University Press, 1923, New York and London, Hardcover, 1036 pages ISBN 0231087950